As far as I can tell, you don't have any issue with the folks at SS. If you're of the proper age and have an earnings history and SS credits, then you qualify for SS checks and you'll get them. They won't care at all about your wife's business, and they probably won't know that you were/are the vice president of the company.
If anything, the problems you cite would be tax problems with the IRS. I've got no particular expertise on this issue, but if you followed the rules concerning what you should receive as dividends vs salary from your wife's company, then you should be okay. My guess is that it would require an audit of some kind for the IRS to make a determination that you should have properly taken the S-Corp dividends as salary instead, and if they make that determination then it would affect the taxation of your SS benefits. You'd have to pay any taxes due, interest, and maybe a fine.
I'm sure folks with more knowledge will chime in.
If there's a problem/potential problem with the way you are receiving compensation (dividends vs salary), how hard is it for you to simply stop being the VP of the company right now? Any problems with the IRS would be ones related to the taxes you owe on your SS benefits (going forward, statrting from when you receive the first check) due to this other earned income. She'd get the dividend checks.
samclem (also from Ohio)
"Freedom begins when you tell Mrs. Grundy to go fly a kite." - R. Heinlein