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Old 10-03-2014, 09:01 AM   #81
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My relatives in Texas sent up these little photos, as the Houston NFL team is playing the Dallas NFL team this Sunday





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Old 10-03-2014, 09:12 AM   #82
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Actually, I'm more concerned about enterovirus 68 Non-Polio Enterovirus Infection: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) - CDC

We know much about Ebola. We do not know much about enterovirus 68 Denver-area children stricken by partial paralysis puzzle neurologists - The Denver Post
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Old 10-03-2014, 11:19 AM   #83
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Wouldn't matter. N95 masks will pass particles smaller than 3,000 nanometers. Ebola virus is roughly 200 nanometers (depending on folding), and as an airborne virus will nicely slip through an N95 mask.
When a viral disease is transmitted through the air, do viruses typically travel as "singletons"? I was under the impression that viruses (and bacteria) are almost exclusively expelled as aerosols on small globules of saliva, mucus, etc. during coughing, sneezing, speaking, etc. If so, that's where an N95 mask would do a lot of good.

A study on disease spread via intermediate inanimate objects ("fomites"). Despite the importance of this, apparently it hasn't been studied very much.
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Old 10-03-2014, 12:18 PM   #84
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When a viral disease is transmitted through the air, do viruses typically travel as "singletons"? I was under the impression that viruses (and bacteria) are almost exclusively expelled as aerosols on small globules of saliva, mucus, etc. during coughing, sneezing, speaking, etc. If so, that's where an N95 mask would do a lot of good.

A study on disease spread via intermediate inanimate objects ("fomites"). Despite the importance of this, apparently it hasn't been studied very much.
That's transmission as an aerosol. Large particle aerosols are blocked effectively by the N95 mask. Particle sizes below 3 microns are not blocked. There was a study on N95 respirators related to the transmission of flu virus in aerosol form.

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/11/pdfs/06-0426.pdf (Note that this is a CDC study.)

Note that the recommendation is for respirators, the close-fitted and sealed device, not the loose fitting masks.
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How Contagious Is Ebola?
Old 10-03-2014, 12:48 PM   #85
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How Contagious Is Ebola?

No, Seriously, How Contagious Is Ebola? : Shots - Health News : NPR

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The reproduction number, or "R nought," is a mathematical term that tells you how contagious an infectious disease is. Specifically, it's the number of people who catch the disease from one sick person, on average, in an outbreak.
...
Now at this point, you're probably thinking, "OK. But an R0 of 2 is nothing to brush off." You're right. R0 of 2 means one person infects two people, who then infect four people, then eight, 16, 32 — the numbers go up fast.


But that isn't likely to happen in a place with a good public health system, like the U.S. Why? Because people with Ebola aren't contagious until they show symptoms.


So to stop the chain of transmission, all health workers in Texas have to do is get the people possibly infected by the sick man into isolation before these people show signs of Ebola.


Then R0 drops to zero. And Texas is free of Ebola.


More here: No, Seriously, How Contagious Is Ebola? : Shots - Health News : NPR
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Old 10-03-2014, 12:52 PM   #86
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My relatives in Texas sent up these little photos, as the Houston NFL team is playing the Dallas NFL team this Sunday

[/IMG]
No problem, Houston has it all under control.....the DOT is shutting down I-45 completely in both directions north at highway 242 of Houston starting tonight at 11 pm until Monday 5 am. That will make sure that no Texan fans can drive to Dallas and go to the game and return.
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Old 10-03-2014, 12:58 PM   #87
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That is not a very encouraging chart considering how many people have Hep C (over 100 million worldwide)
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Old 10-03-2014, 03:07 PM   #88
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That is not a very encouraging chart considering how many people have Hep C (over 100 million worldwide)

That's true but Hep C, symptoms aren't very obvious unlike Ebola. In the west, even people high as a kite, aren't likely to share needles with person suffering from Ebola who has been sick for more than a day or two.
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Old 10-03-2014, 04:07 PM   #89
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And of course Hepatitis C is a chronic disease that people have for years and years.
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Old 10-03-2014, 05:52 PM   #90
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Excellent point. That's probably it.
Here are some quotes from people actually in the field, who don't have to analogize from another industry as I did.

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The patient lies in what’s called the “hot room.” Health care workers enter through a side room called the “warm room,” where they put on protective equipment before entering the hot room. The gear typically includes a surgical hat, a respirator mask, a surgical gown, a face shield and surgical boot covers.
Entry is limited to only a few doctors and nurses. Once they enter the hot room and tend to the patient, they exit back through the warm room, where they peel away the protective equipment. They put the contaminated clothing in yellow trash bags labeled “biohazard.” The material is sterilized and incinerated
...
At the Nebraska Biocontainment Patient Care Unit in Omaha, nursing director Shelly Schwedhelm said . . . that health care workers must be properly trained to deal with Ebola. “One of the things I am worried about with Ebola is that staff [must] practice, practice, practice putting on and taking off the personal protective equipment,” she said.
She said that strict attention must be paid to the exact order in which the protective equipment is removed. “If you don’t pay attention to that order, you could contaminate yourself,” she said. “I hope the people in Dallas are really focused on that.”
Isolation rooms integral to halting Ebola virus | Dallas Morning News

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As of Aug. 25, more than 240 healthcare workers have developed the disease in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, and more than 120 have died, according to the World Health Organization.
Many of these infections occurred when healthcare workers were removing the personal protective gear - masks, gowns, gloves or full hazmat suits used to care for the patients, said biosafety experts.
Sean Kaufman, president of Behavioral-Based Improvement Solutions, an Atlanta-based biosafety firm, helped coach nurses at Emory University through the process of putting on and taking off personal protective equipment (PPE) while they were caring for two U.S. aid workers flown to Atlanta after becoming infected with Ebola in West Africa.
Kaufman became known as "Papa Smurf" to the Emory nurses because of the blue hazmat suits he and others wore that resembled the cartoon character.
"Our healthcare workforce goes through so many pairs of gloves that they really don't focus on how they remove gloves. The putting on and the taking off doesn't occur with enough attention to protect themselves," he said.
U.S. nurses say they are unprepared to handle Ebola patients | Reuters
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Washington Post Article
Old 10-05-2014, 11:21 AM   #91
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Washington Post Article

I thought this was a good article about what's being done (or not being done) to slow down the spread of this disease -

How Ebola sped out of control | The Washington Post
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Old 10-08-2014, 01:09 PM   #92
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The Texas patient has died.

I have been reading about the nurse who was infected in Spain after two brief contacts with a patient with Ebola brought back from western Africa for care. The first sign of her infection was a very low grade fever, that sign too was ignored until she exhibited symptoms such as sweating.

The signs of infection are far more subtle than believed by medical scientists. That is not good.

Last year DH & I were in India and became aware of the lack of sanitation and personal contact in public transportation. It will take only one or two Ebola patients to start a wide spread epidemic in SE Asia and I do not see, as a practical matter, how that can be prevented.
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Old 10-08-2014, 01:16 PM   #93
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When the only way to get an often fatal disease is through contact with body fluids, it makes good sense to be very careful about sexual partners and practices. But since Ebola victims can infect others only when they are showing symptoms -- high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness and aches -- physical intimacy probably isn't a common way of transmitting the disease.
However, the Ebola virus can survive in semen for months after a man recovers from the infection, posing an ongoing threat to sexual partners long after he is well. At a time when a man's bloodstream is swimming with antibodies, and he is immune to the disease, he still may be able to infect others.
Sex in a time of Ebola - The Washington Post
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Old 10-08-2014, 05:11 PM   #94
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Whew! I am sure glad they practice safe sex in Africa!
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Old 10-08-2014, 06:12 PM   #95
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I read today that the nurse in Spain may have touched her gloved hand to her face while doffing the protective clothing. This is a problem that I have been thinking about since I posted earlier on this thread, and today an idea popped into my head, inspired by my memory of the red dental "disclosing tablets" that we were required to chew in grade school to see if we were brushing our teeth properly.

I just sent this email to CDC:

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Dear CDC:

I have read the disheartening news about healthcare workers in West Africa, and now in Spain, becoming contaminated with the Ebola virus when removing their personal protective equipment. I have a suggestion that may help alleviate the problem.

As a young man, I worked in nuclear reactors, and I often had occasion to wear anti-contamination clothing almost identical to that used by the doctors now treating Ebola patients. I recall that the process of removing the protective clothing after exiting the contaminated area was very demanding – the clothing must be removed in a precise order and with precise movements – and a moment of carelessness or inattention could easily result in inadvertent contamination. Fortunately for those of us at the nuclear plant, after we were undressed we were monitored by radiation meters to determine whether we had any contamination on our skin or undergarments. Sadly, however, there is no equivalent Ebola meter to detect what may be invisible contamination with a patient’s bodily fluids.

As I thought about this problem, it occurred to me that one way to help would be to make the contamination visible. Hence, my suggestion as follows: As I understand the protocol, after exiting the hot zone, healthcare workers first submerge their gloved hands in a bleach solution, then undress. My suggestion is to add an intermediate step. After the first submerging of the gloves, while they are still wet, have the doctor or nurse put their gloved hands in a box of the red dry powder used to make instant gelatin (Jell-O). It will stick to the wet gloves (similar to the way one dredges a chicken breast in flour when cooking) and will leave a red smear on anything it subsequently touches. Then, let them undress. At the completion of the disrobing, have someone inspect them for red smears on their skin or their undergarments. Any mark should be assumed to be contaminated and that spot can then be washed with bleach. Monitoring for symptoms and isolation can also begin at that point to prevent the further spread of the disease.

This proposal has several benefits – it is inexpensive and low tech, which is important in a place like West Africa. The powder is also readily available and does not in and of itself have any negative health effects on humans.

I hope that I have been clear enough so that you can take the idea and refine it as necessary or appropriate, but I am happy to discuss with you further if that would help.

Thank you so much for the important work you are doing to help defeat this terrible disease.

Sincerely,

(Gumby)
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Old 10-08-2014, 07:21 PM   #96
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Thoughtful article by a scientist who was involved in the discovery of Ebola in 1976:

'In 1976 I discovered Ebola - now I fear an unimaginable tragedy' | World news | The Observer
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Old 10-08-2014, 07:31 PM   #97
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I just sent this email to CDC:
That's a great idea--easy and cheap to implement. Oh, and it might save some lives. Thanks for sending it in, and sharing it here.
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Old 10-08-2014, 08:16 PM   #98
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I nominate REWahoo to head up the Texas anti-tourism bureau
Right! I second that.

We go to as penance one week in February to atone for snow in Paradise aka Kansas City.

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Old 10-08-2014, 10:11 PM   #99
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I read today that the nurse in Spain may have touched her gloved hand to her face while doffing the protective clothing. This is a problem that I have been thinking about since I posted earlier on this thread, and today an idea popped into my head, inspired by my memory of the red dental "disclosing tablets" that we were required to chew in grade school to see if we were brushing our teeth properly.
I was watching a web tv news feed from a Dallas station, given the afternoon coverage of the deputy that was taken to the hospital. In the TV station's news story, they also included a clip of the CDC's class that they run to teach healthcare workers how to handle working in conditions in Africa to combat Ebola.

At the end of the story, among the other clips they showed of the healthcare worker "students" in the multi-week Africa program (note: these are healthcare professionals, not nursing students), they showed a clip of a person donned up with 3 pairs of gloves and a plastic suit, practicing washing their hands at a large plastic container of water with a plastic spigot - in the same conditions they would encounter in Africa.

Yep, you guessed it - they showed the healthcare worker reaching up and, with their "clean hand", manually turned off the plastic spigot with their gloved fingers. Then they walked away. And immediately were replaced with the next "student", who took their dirty, gloved hand, and turned on the same plastic spigot to start the water flow.

And, presumably, will take their "clean" gloved hand and touch the same plastic spigot that they turned with their dirty hand a few moments prior.

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Old 10-09-2014, 12:14 PM   #100
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Thoughtful article by a scientist who was involved in the discovery of Ebola in 1976:

'In 1976 I discovered Ebola - now I fear an unimaginable tragedy' | World news | The Observer
Very interesting article, thank you. There is one sentence given to a question about non-direct spread, or airborne spread. Professor Piot says he thinks this is unlikely, but "it is clear that the virus is mutating". One avenue to a higher rate of transmission that he mentions is a longer infectious survival period. He is certainly well acquainted with this from his HIV experience.

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