Join Early Retirement Today
Closed Thread
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread Display Modes
Mild COVID infection induces lasting immunity
Old 05-27-2021, 08:50 AM   #1
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
RAE's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: northern Michigan
Posts: 2,115
Mild COVID infection induces lasting immunity

Recent study looked at bone marrow samples of those who had a relatively mild case of COVID and recovered to see if there were antibody-producing cells there that could rapidly respond to the threat of another infection. It turns out that there were, in most of them, even after 11 months. Antibody testing is not a good way to determine whether someone has immunity, as antibodies fade rapidly after the infection has been suppressed. Beyond that point, the T cells (which can attack and kill viruses) and B cells (which manufacture antibodies) reside mostly in the bone marrow.

I'm not surprised by this, as it supports the findings of several other recent studies re. virus-induced immunity to COVID. This is exactly how our immune systems respond to many viral attacks, especially serious viral threats like SARS-Cov-1 (another coronavirus). People who had SARS still have strong immunity to it some 18 years later. I think the media is just now starting to catch up to the science on this.

https://source.wustl.edu/2021/05/goo...tTB0adcNKh4eNk
RAE is offline  
Join the #1 Early Retirement and Financial Independence Forum Today - It's Totally Free!

Are you planning to be financially independent as early as possible so you can live life on your own terms? Discuss successful investing strategies, asset allocation models, tax strategies and other related topics in our online forum community. Our members range from young folks just starting their journey to financial independence, military retirees and even multimillionaires. No matter where you fit in you'll find that Early-Retirement.org is a great community to join. Best of all it's totally FREE!

You are currently viewing our boards as a guest so you have limited access to our community. Please take the time to register and you will gain a lot of great new features including; the ability to participate in discussions, network with our members, see fewer ads, upload photographs, create a retirement blog, send private messages and so much, much more!

Old 05-27-2021, 09:32 AM   #2
Give me a museum and I'll fill it. (Picasso)
Give me a forum ...
audreyh1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2006
Location: Rio Grande Valley
Posts: 29,891
Cool!

Except sampling bone marrow sounds really painful!!
__________________
Retired since summer 1999.
audreyh1 is offline  
Old 05-27-2021, 09:40 AM   #3
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
 
Join Date: Apr 2015
Posts: 2,503
Welcoming news!
__________________
You are no longer in a savings mode.
You are now in a slow spend down mode.
pacergal is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 12:17 PM   #4
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
 
Join Date: Jul 2017
Location: Long Island
Posts: 1,593


John Campbell explains the mechanism for long term immunity (Video date May 30, 2021, if the link is no good.)
__________________
Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.
MarieIG is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 02:32 PM   #5
Recycles dryer sheets
teetee's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2019
Posts: 404
Is it wise to consider that the vaccines we have now, and the immunity from surviving infections only prevent severe reactions from reinfections ( so you don't die from it ), but they do not prevent the short window that some virus escaped from the killer cells and are able to transmit from you to the others?

I raise this question because I think it is safer to block the transmission using known good measures like social distancing and mask wearing.

Vaccine efficacy are measured based on death from infected test subjects, not the successful rate of blocking transmission. Throwing masks out of the window now gives the virus and it's variants a breathing room and that means our risk for them (though slower than without vaccines) to mutate to develope a vaccine-resistant strain.
teetee is online now  
Old 05-31-2021, 02:54 PM   #6
Give me a museum and I'll fill it. (Picasso)
Give me a forum ...
audreyh1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2006
Location: Rio Grande Valley
Posts: 29,891
Covid-19 vaccine efficacy is based on symptomatic disease, not death.

Even if infected, transmission is greatly reduced.
__________________
Retired since summer 1999.
audreyh1 is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 03:15 PM   #7
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
RAE's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: northern Michigan
Posts: 2,115
Quote:
Originally Posted by MarieIG View Post


John Campbell explains the mechanism for long term immunity (Video date May 30, 2021, if the link is no good.)

Thanks for posting. He reviewed some of the same studies that I have reviewed, so it was interesting to get his take on them.


The one thing that stands out here, to me anyway, is that immunologists have known for many years that it's the T cells and B cells that ultimately drive our immune response to many of these viruses. Antibodies can be produced by the B cells, but antibodies tend to fade away with time - as would expected, because once you are no longer sick, there is no need to pack the bloodstream with antibodies. And yet..........all of the focus with COV-Sars-2 has been on antibodies. Everyone who suspected they might have had COVID was encouraged to get the antibody test, which they said would tell you whether you had been infected or not. It turns out that was pretty worthless for anyone who suspected they had COVID more than a couple months before the test, because any antibodies they had produced could easily be gone by then. Yet, the T cells and B cells remain (in the bone marrow, mostly), and can remain there for decades. This is exactly what happened with SARS-COV-1, as he discusses in the video.


Very interesting how our immune systems work, at least to me. Based on the studies he reviewed (and a few others I have read), it appears that those who've had COVID and recovered will likely have durable immunity that could last for quite some time.
RAE is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 03:25 PM   #8
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
 
Join Date: Jul 2017
Location: Long Island
Posts: 1,593
Quote:
Originally Posted by RAE View Post
Thanks for posting. He reviewed some of the same studies that I have reviewed, so it was interesting to get his take on them.


The one thing that stands out here, to me anyway, is that immunologists have known for many years that it's the T cells and B cells that ultimately drive our immune response to many of these viruses. Antibodies can be produced by the B cells, but antibodies tend to fade away with time - as would expected, because once you are no longer sick, there is no need to pack the bloodstream with antibodies. And yet..........all of the focus with COV-Sars-2 has been on antibodies. Everyone who suspected they might have had COVID was encouraged to get the antibody test, which they said would tell you whether you had been infected or not. It turns out that was pretty worthless for anyone who suspected they had COVID more than a couple months before the test, because any antibodies they had produced could easily be gone by then. Yet, the T cells and B cells remain (in the bone marrow, mostly), and can remain there for decades. This is exactly what happened with SARS-COV-1, as he discusses in the video.


Very interesting how our immune systems work, at least to me. Based on the studies he reviewed (and a few others I have read), it appears that those who've had COVID and recovered will likely have durable immunity that could last for quite some time.

In fact I was one of the ones who was tested several months after a virus which was "not the flu" . . .

When I was ill, I did not qualify for Covid 19 testing.

And when I was tested for antibodies, I did not know of the possibility that the antibodies might not be visible several months later . . .
__________________
Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.
MarieIG is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 03:28 PM   #9
Moderator
sengsational's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2010
Posts: 8,339
I think the focus on antibodies is because that test is cheap and easy. It tells you if you've recently had a "wild-type" infection and it can tell you if you've had an effective vaccination response, again, if done shortly after vaccination. But as you say, memory cells will kick into action quickly upon repeated exposure to the same (or similar) pathogen and that will enable the body to defend itself more quickly, and likely result with less-severe disease.

It will be interesting to see the statistics on reinfection. I'd be looking at hospitalizations, because a minor reinfection isn't something to be too concerned about. I imagine the majority of the reinfected that need hospitalization will be those that didn't have a great immune response to the vaccine. And that will get more prevalent as time goes on. Somewhere way down the road, maybe those that fought-off the disease might get reinfected, but I doubt we'll see many of those.
sengsational is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 03:53 PM   #10
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
 
Join Date: Jul 2017
Location: Long Island
Posts: 1,593
Quote:
Originally Posted by sengsational View Post
I think the focus on antibodies is because that test is cheap and easy. It tells you if you've recently had a "wild-type" infection and it can tell you if you've had an effective vaccination response, again, if done shortly after vaccination. But as you say, memory cells will kick into action quickly upon repeated exposure to the same (or similar) pathogen and that will enable the body to defend itself more quickly, and likely result with less-severe disease.

It will be interesting to see the statistics on reinfection. I'd be looking at hospitalizations, because a minor reinfection isn't something to be too concerned about. I imagine the majority of the reinfected that need hospitalization will be those that didn't have a great immune response to the vaccine. And that will get more prevalent as time goes on. Somewhere way down the road, maybe those that fought-off the disease might get reinfected, but I doubt we'll see many of those.
Yes.
__________________
Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.
MarieIG is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 04:15 PM   #11
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
 
Join Date: Jul 2017
Location: Long Island
Posts: 1,593
Quote:
Originally Posted by teetee View Post
Is it wise to consider that the vaccines we have now, and the immunity from surviving infections only prevent severe reactions from reinfections ( so you don't die from it ), but they do not prevent the short window that some virus escaped from the killer cells and are able to transmit from you to the others?

I raise this question because I think it is safer to block the transmission using known good measures like social distancing and mask wearing.

Vaccine efficacy are measured based on death from infected test subjects, not the successful rate of blocking transmission. Throwing masks out of the window now gives the virus and it's variants a breathing room and that means our risk for them (though slower than without vaccines) to mutate to develope a vaccine-resistant strain.
It does seem that the majority of governmental and press releases are focused upon releasing data focusing upon protection from hospitalization and death. I believe that we are starting to get some data re: transmissibility, but I would have to look (i.e. coming out of Israel re phizer). It does take a period of time after vaccination to get the full effect. In my opinion, getting vaccinated doesn't necessarily preclude other precautions (particularly amongst the immunocompromised) however, I believe there is some governmental desire to reward those receiving the vaccines with the intention of promoting additional motivation for vaccination. I was surprised by the speed with which the recommendation went from double masking to no masks (for vaccinated persons).
__________________
Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.
MarieIG is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 04:25 PM   #12
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
RAE's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: northern Michigan
Posts: 2,115
Quote:
Originally Posted by sengsational View Post
I think the focus on antibodies is because that test is cheap and easy.

It will be interesting to see the statistics on reinfection. I'd be looking at hospitalizations, because a minor reinfection isn't something to be too concerned about. I imagine the majority of the reinfected that need hospitalization will be those that didn't have a great immune response to the vaccine. And that will get more prevalent as time goes on. Somewhere way down the road, maybe those that fought-off the disease might get reinfected, but I doubt we'll see many of those.

Agreed, on both of your points. If COV-Sars-2 is anything like COV-Sars-1 (and supposedly they are very similar coronaviruses, in many ways), those that have recovered from COV-Sars-2 will likely have immunity that lasts for years, maybe decades. It will take time to determine this, of course, but all indicators seem to point to that.
RAE is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 04:44 PM   #13
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
RAE's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: northern Michigan
Posts: 2,115
Quote:
Originally Posted by MarieIG View Post
In fact I was one of the ones who was tested several months after a virus which was "not the flu" . . .

When I was ill, I did not qualify for Covid 19 testing.

And when I was tested for antibodies, I did not know of the possibility that the antibodies might not be visible several months later . . .
Very similar story with me. Did not qualify for the COVID test back when I was sick (March, 2020), even though I had basically all of the typical COVID symptoms, including loss of my sense of smell for a few days, which is very diagnostic for COVID. Was told by the local clinic to just stay home and self-medicate, rest..........don't come in unless you are having trouble breathing (I was not). Recovered completely in about 6-7 days. Had the antibody test done much later (June), when it first became available in our area, and the results were inconclusive. Then I learned later that the antibody test is pretty worthless unless it is done shortly after you had the virus.

I know there are a whole lot of people out there like me (and you), who probably had COVID, but will never know with 100% certainty. We are likely among the 120 million+ people in the U.S. that CDC estimates have had it, so far, and recovered.
RAE is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 07:20 PM   #14
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
 
Join Date: Jul 2017
Location: Long Island
Posts: 1,593
Quote:
Originally Posted by RAE View Post
Very similar story with me. Did not qualify for the COVID test back when I was sick (March, 2020), even though I had basically all of the typical COVID symptoms, including loss of my sense of smell for a few days, which is very diagnostic for COVID. Was told by the local clinic to just stay home and self-medicate, rest..........don't come in unless you are having trouble breathing (I was not). Recovered completely in about 6-7 days. Had the antibody test done much later (June), when it first became available in our area, and the results were inconclusive. Then I learned later that the antibody test is pretty worthless unless it is done shortly after you had the virus.

I know there are a whole lot of people out there like me (and you), who probably had COVID, but will never know with 100% certainty. We are likely among the 120 million+ people in the U.S. that CDC estimates have had it, so far, and recovered.
I began to feel sick in early March, 2020. In late February, early March I was on the NYC subway, Long Island Rail Road, Staten Island Ferry; King's County Court house, was coughed on in an elevator. My symptoms started with a slight cough and lost my appetite. About two days into the cough I got very weak and experienced intestinal upset. I was motivated go to (have one of my kids drive me to) the doctor when I was so weak and dizzy I fell over. I had a fever and was diagnosed with pneumonia and a virus which was not the flu. I can't remember about the taste, but I stopped eating entirely, other than medicine, water and tea which my son gave me. The doctor put me on antibiotics and Tamiflu for not the flu, and I was "out of it" (laid in a recliner for about ten days, had never felt so weak in my life). I lost 17 pounds and I don't loose weight easily. My son developed a cough for about three-four days, and my husband was away helping with the grandchildren (thank goodness).

At the time, I thought of my illness as phase I and phase II. The fever, cough, intestinal upset, extreme weakness, etc. were phase I. But, I had what I thought were bladder issues (it was not the bladder), which did not clear up in spite of the antibiotics and stronger antibiotics. At that point, it was nearly impossible to get anyone to see you; everything was shutting down with instructions to get telemedicine. Well, I didn't want telemedicine.

Hubby came home (as what I thought of as phase I was ending), and I had him drive me to the hospital. It was a mob scene. Again, I was asked whether I had been out of the country or been exposed to anyone with Covid. I told them no, but also told them my medical history as I didn't want to expose anyone. (Now I know that if I had Covid, by that time the shedding would have stopped.) By that time, my fever was gone and lungs were clear, but my white cell blood count was high, and I was admitted and placed on IV antibiotics. At that point they were sending Covid patients to the right; and non-Covids to the left. Due to my cancer history - they kept me separate (stuck me in a wheelchair and put my in a little waiting room, I was fine with that, until I was taken to an examination room).

My "theory" was that the initial illness impacted my ability to fight off the internal infection which had been lurking. (Also, my psoriasis, which had been mild flared.)

When I was released from the hospital, the world had changed - and everyone was walking around in masks.
__________________
Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.
MarieIG is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 07:57 PM   #15
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
RAE's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: northern Michigan
Posts: 2,115
Quote:
Originally Posted by MarieIG View Post
I began to feel sick in early March, 2020. In late February, early March I was on the NYC subway, Long Island Rail Road, Staten Island Ferry; King's County Court house, was coughed on in an elevator. My symptoms started with a slight cough and lost my appetite. About two days into the cough I got very weak and experienced intestinal upset. I was motivated go to (have one of my kids drive me to) the doctor when I was so weak and dizzy I fell over. I had a fever and was diagnosed with pneumonia and a virus which was not the flu. I can't remember about the taste, but I stopped eating entirely, other than medicine, water and tea which my son gave me. The doctor put me on antibiotics and Tamiflu for not the flu, and I was "out of it" (laid in a recliner for about ten days, had never felt so weak in my life). I lost 17 pounds and I don't loose weight easily. My son developed a cough for about three-four days, and my husband was away helping with the grandchildren (thank goodness).

At the time, I thought of my illness as phase I and phase II. The fever, cough, intestinal upset, extreme weakness, etc. were phase I. But, I had what I thought were bladder issues (it was not the bladder), which did not clear up in spite of the antibiotics and stronger antibiotics. At that point, it was nearly impossible to get anyone to see you; everything was shutting down with instructions to get telemedicine. Well, I didn't want telemedicine.

Hubby came home (as what I thought of as phase I was ending), and I had him drive me to the hospital. It was a mob scene. Again, I was asked whether I had been out of the country or been exposed to anyone with Covid. I told them no, but also told them my medical history as I didn't want to expose anyone. (Now I know that if I had Covid, by that time the shedding would have stopped.) By that time, my fever was gone and lungs were clear, but my white cell blood count was high, and I was admitted and placed on IV antibiotics. At that point they were sending Covid patients to the right; and non-Covids to the left. Due to my cancer history - they kept me separate (stuck me in a wheelchair and put my in a little waiting room, I was fine with that, until I was taken to an examination room).

My "theory" was that the initial illness impacted my ability to fight off the internal infection which had been lurking. (Also, my psoriasis, which had been mild flared.)

When I was released from the hospital, the world had changed - and everyone was walking around in masks.
Wow, your ordeal was much worse than what I experienced. With me, I initially felt lightheaded and dizzy, but shrugged it off as being overly tired (I had not slept well the night before). So I laid down to try to rest for a bit. An hour or two later, the fever (and headache) started, and the fever basically continued for the next 5-6 days......that was the worst part of my ordeal. Not sure what my temp. was, but it was high enough that I could not focus on much of anything, couldn't read, and couldn't sleep for very long either. I was also very fatigued........major effort to get up off the couch and move around, even a little bit. I knew I had to eat, but was not hungry, and food had no taste or smell to it (that lasted a couple days). I called the doc after a couple days, but was advised to just stay home unless I had difficulty breathing. Breathing was okay, so I just stayed home and toughed it out. Felt a little better after 5 days........fever seemed to be diminishing a bit, so I went outside and tried to walk around a bit with the dog. That was a mistake, as the fever then came back for another day and night. Finally, after 6-7 days, I woke up and felt a little better. Got gradually better every day after that. I never did have a cough or breathing problems, so thankfully it did not get into my lungs.

I'm pretty sure I know where I picked up the virus. My wife and I had been to the local pub a few days before I got sick, and we sat with a friend who had just returned from skiing in Colorado. He had a cough and said he did not feel great, but shrugged it off as a mild cold he had picked up while skiing, and I didn't think much of it. Some time after I recovered from my ordeal, I talked to him, and he also got very sick right after that evening, and was even sicker than I was, for a couple weeks or so, with the fever and other symptoms. He also called his doc, and was also told to not to come in unless it was an emergency, so he also toughed it out at home, and eventually recovered.

Another friend from the outing at the pub that night also started feeling sick not long after that. He was able to go to his doc, and was checked over. His doc also told him he had some kind of virus, probably, but "not the flu". He was given a steroid shot and sent home to rest. He felt better for a day or so, then developed the same symptoms as I had, and was sick for the next 10 days or so. He recovered eventually also.

This was early March, 2020, and nobody knew much about COVID at that point, even the docs and medical clinics. There was no COVID test available, at least in our area, at that time. And even when the test became available, they still did not want people with COVID symptoms coming in to get tested unless you had serious breathing problems.
RAE is offline  
Old 05-31-2021, 08:29 PM   #16
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
 
Join Date: Jul 2017
Location: Long Island
Posts: 1,593
Quote:
Originally Posted by RAE View Post
Wow, your ordeal was much worse than what I experienced. With me, I initially felt lightheaded and dizzy, but shrugged it off as being overly tired (I had not slept well the night before). So I laid down to try to rest for a bit. An hour or two later, the fever (and headache) started, and the fever basically continued for the next 5-6 days......that was the worst part of my ordeal. Not sure what my temp. was, but it was high enough that I could not focus on much of anything, couldn't read, and couldn't sleep for very long either. I was also very fatigued........major effort to get up off the couch and move around, even a little bit. I knew I had to eat, but was not hungry, and food had no taste or smell to it (that lasted a couple days). I called the doc after a couple days, but was advised to just stay home unless I had difficulty breathing. Breathing was okay, so I just stayed home and toughed it out. Felt a little better after 5 days........fever seemed to be diminishing a bit, so I went outside and tried to walk around a bit with the dog. That was a mistake, as the fever then came back for another day and night. Finally, after 6-7 days, I woke up and felt a little better. Got gradually better every day after that. I never did have a cough or breathing problems, so thankfully it did not get into my lungs.

I'm pretty sure I know where I picked up the virus. My wife and I had been to the local pub a few days before I got sick, and we sat with a friend who had just returned from skiing in Colorado. He had a cough and said he did not feel great, but shrugged it off as a mild cold he had picked up while skiing, and I didn't think much of it. Some time after I recovered from my ordeal, I talked to him, and he also got very sick right after that evening, and was even sicker than I was, for a couple weeks or so, with the fever and other symptoms. He also called his doc, and was also told to not to come in unless it was an emergency, so he also toughed it out at home, and eventually recovered.

Another friend from the outing at the pub that night also started feeling sick not long after that. He was able to go to his doc, and was checked over. His doc also told him he had some kind of virus, probably, but "not the flu". He was given a steroid shot and sent home to rest. He felt better for a day or so, then developed the same symptoms as I had, and was sick for the next 10 days or so. He recovered eventually also.

This was early March, 2020, and nobody knew much about COVID at that point, even the docs and medical clinics. There was no COVID test available, at least in our area, at that time. And even when the test became available, they still did not want people with COVID symptoms coming in to get tested unless you had serious breathing problems.
The tests were just becoming available in our area, but very limited and I didn't qualify.

It does appear that you have some confirmation as to where you got it. I suspect I got it on the elevator with the coughing women. Obviously, I don't know that but that moment really stuck in my mind.

I've had the flu, but this was worse.
__________________
Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.
MarieIG is offline  
Old 06-07-2021, 11:22 PM   #17
Recycles dryer sheets
Lienlord's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2018
Location: Oklahoma City
Posts: 131
I got sick on Valentines Day 2020. Didn't know about Covid then, but knew I felt worse than I had in years. Thought it was flu, but realized after news stories started coming out the symptoms were Covid. Fortunately DW never had severe symptoms, and only seemed to have a mild case. While it could have been worse, I think our ages (56) and lack of any comorbidities helped us get by relatively unscathed.
But thankful now to see confirmation the immunity gained should protect us and our family in the future.
Lienlord is offline  
Old 06-08-2021, 09:14 AM   #18
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
folivier's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2009
Posts: 1,097
Is anybody using this info for their decision to not get the vaccine?
__________________
You do not have a soul. You are a soul. You have a body.
folivier is online now  
Old 06-08-2021, 11:12 AM   #19
Thinks s/he gets paid by the post
USGrant1962's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2016
Location: DC area
Posts: 1,771
I know a number of people who had confirmed cases of Covid that are procrastinating on vax.
__________________
FI and Semi-ER March 24, 2017
Consulting to stay engaged

"All models are wrong, some are useful." - George Box
There is always a well-known solution to every human problem: neat, plausible, and wrong.” - H.L. Mencken
USGrant1962 is online now  
Old 06-08-2021, 11:32 AM   #20
Moderator
Aerides's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2015
Posts: 8,541
Quote:
Originally Posted by Lienlord View Post
I got sick on Valentines Day 2020.
Me too, but it wasn't Covid. Just a regular respiratory infection, even though I had a fever and cough that lasted a few weeks. I thought for sure I must be an early case, but no testing existed in the US for regular people until a month or more later. I even went to the docs and got a negative Flu test. I had most of the symptoms, and my illness came right after an international convention. Had it occurred even 2 weeks later it might have been an early super spreader.

I paid for an antibody test last June when they first came out...Negative. I know they're inconclusive, but I'll take that as a nope.

I would caution anyone who is sure they had it, but never got an actual diagnosis, or positive antibody test result, to proceed as if they didn't. I'm sure there are millions of people who, like me, are pretty sure they had it...but in reality didn't.
Aerides is offline  
Closed Thread


Currently Active Users Viewing This Thread: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are Off
Pingbacks are Off
Refbacks are Off


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
co-infection: 20.7% had a respiratory pathogen AND SARS-CoV-2 Bongleur COVID-19 | Containment Area 0 04-21-2020 05:06 PM
Make your own infection model! Masquernom COVID-19 | Containment Area 2 03-29-2020 09:04 AM
Worrying about money lasting? sunnysideup FIRE and Money 47 04-22-2012 07:44 PM
Could have a long lasting impact to FIRE (dryer sheets) Earl E Retyre Other topics 11 01-02-2011 12:48 PM

» Quick Links

 
All times are GMT -6. The time now is 09:10 AM.
 
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.8 Beta 1
Copyright ©2000 - 2021, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.